Master Bibliography for Auben Gray Burkhart Coin Collection

Master Bibliography:

Albertson, Fred C. 2001. “Zenodorus’s ‘Colossus of Nero.’” Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 46: 95–118.

American Numismatic Society. 2002. “Introduction to Roman Coins.” 

Anonymous Artists. Text Page with Ten Counterfeit Coins. n.d. Images.

 “As - Germanicus, Roman Empire.” Numista. Accessed May 2, 2022. 

Asuni, Michele. “Jupiter and Eagle.” JHU Archaeological Museum, June 2, 2021.

Bauman, A, Richard. 1994. “Women and Politics in Ancient Rome.” Oxfordshire: Routledge & CRC Press.

Beard, Mary, and John Henderson. Classics. New York: Sterling Pub., 2010. 

Brettler, Marc, Carol Newsom, and Pheme Perkins, eds. 2018. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with Apocrypha. 5th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Arcadius: Roman Emperor.” Encyclopedia Britannica. April 27, 2022.

Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Gallienus: Roman Emperor.” Encyclopedia Britannica. January 1, 2022. 

Burgess, R. W. “THE SUMMER OF BLOOD: The ‘Great Massacre’ of 337 and the Promotion of the Sons of Constantine.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 62 (2008): 5–51.

Burnett, Andrew M., Michel Amandry, Pere Pau Ripollès, and Ian Carradice. 1992. Roman Provincial Coinage. from the Death of Caesar to the Death of Vitellius (44 BC-AD 69). London: British Museum Press.

Bursche, Aleksander, and Kirill Myzgin. Gold Coins, Alexandria Troas and Goths. London: SPINK, 2015. 

Calomino, Dario. “Emperor or God? The Posthumous Commemoration of Augustus in Rome and the Provinces.” The Numismatic Chronicle (1966-), vol. 175, 2015, pp. 57–82, Accessed 6 May 2022.

Champlin, Edward. “Nero Reconsidered.” New England Review (1990-), vol. 19, no. 2, 1998, pp. 97–108, Accessed 7 May 2022

Champlin, Edward. 2003. “Nero, Apollo, and the Poets.” Phoenix 57, no. 3/4: 276–83.

Charlesworth, M P. “Pietas and Victoria: The Emperor and the Citizen.” The Journal of Roman Studies 33 (1943): 1–10.

Charlesworth, Martin Percival. “Providentia and Aeternitas.” The Harvard Theological Review 29, no. 2 (1936): 107–32.

Collective database. “How to Identify Roman Coins,” 2017.

Conference session at Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property 1970, Paris, France, November 14, 1970.

Davenport, Caillan. “Iterated Consulships and the Government of Severus Alexander.” Zeitschrift Für Papyrologie Und Epigraphik, vol. 177, 2011, pp. 281–88, Accessed 6 May 2022.

David R Sear: Record of Natural Disasters on the Coinage of Imperial Rome.” n.d. Accessed May 5, 2022.

Davies, Glenys. “Portrait Statues as Models for Gender Roles in Roman Society.” Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. Supplementary Volumes 7 (2008): 207–20.

Davis, Raymond. Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus. Wiley Online Library, 26 October 2012.

De Jong, Janneke. (2005) “Damnatio Memoriae; E. R. Varner: Mutilation and Transformation. Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture.” The Classical Review; Cambridge Vol. 55, Iss. 2 (October) : 680-681.

“” Accessed May 2, 2022. 

DiMaio, Michael, and Robert Frakes. “Constantius II Emperor.” Constantius II emperor, 1998.

Diocletian. Silver Argenteus of Diocletian, 3.11 g. n.d.

Dubois, Jesse."The Survival of Winged Victory in Christian Late Antiquity." Discentes 1, (2016): 42-58.

Elkins, Nathan T. “A Note on Late Roman Art: The Provincial Origins of Camp Gate and Baldachin Iconography on the Late Imperial Coinage.” American Journal of Numismatics (1989-), vol. 25, 2013, pp. 283–302, Accessed 25 Apr. 2022.

Errington, R. Malcolm. "Christian Accounts of the Religious Legislation of Theodosius I." Klio 79, no. 2 (1997): 398-443.

Farber, Allen. "San Vitale and the Justinian Mosaic," in Smarthistory, August 8, 2015, accessed May 3, 2022,

Figula, M'sentia. “Pax.” Roman Pagan, February 2, 2021.

Flower, Richard. 2012. “Visions of Constantine”. Journal of Roman Studies 102: 287–305. doi:10.1017/S0075435812000068.

Franco, C. “Galerius.” History Cooperative, January 11, 2021. 

Fox, Selena. 2022. “The Goddess of Freedom: From Libertas to Lady Liberty.” Circle Sanctuary. Accessed May 3, 2022.

“Genius.” genius | Facts, Information, and Mythology, March 3, 1997.

Gibbon, Edward. 2013. The History of The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire. New York: Cambridge University Press. 

“Goddess Spirituality: Goddess Felicitas.” Journeying to the Goddess. October 25, 2012. 

Golenko, Konstantin V. “THE METHOD OF COUNTERFEITING ANCIENT COINS OF THE BOSPORUS BY M. SAZONOV AS TOLD BY HIMSELF.” Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society) 20 (1975): 25–28.

Grant, Michael. 1958. Roman History from Coins : Some Uses of the Imperial Coinage to the Historian. Cambridge: University Press.

Gribetz, Sarit Kattan. 2016. "A Matter of Time: Writing Jewish Memory into Roman History." Association for Jewish Studies.AJS Review 40 (1): 57-86. doi: 

Gustave Doré (French, 1832-1883). c. 1865-1875. Liberty. Drawing. Place: <A HREF=>The Cleveland Museum of Art</A>, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, Collection: Drawings, Department: Drawings, Provenance: Estate of the artist (Lugt Suppl. 681a, lower right, in red ink); [studio sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris (13 April 1885), 20, no. 96: "La Liberté. Dessin au pinceau avec rehauts de blanc. Haut., 45 cent.; larg., 32 cent."]. [Galerie Jacques Fischer-Chantal Kie, Bequest of Muriel Butkin.

Hall, Jenny. “With Criminal Intent? Forgers at Work in Roman London.” Britannia 45 (2014): 165–94.

Halsall, Paul. 1996. Galerius and Constantine: Edicts of toleration 311/313. Internet History Sourcebooks Project. (n.d.). Retrieved May 7, 2022, from 

Hanfmann, G. M. A. “Observations on Roman Portraiture.” Latomus 11, no. 3 (1952): 337–47.

Hekster, O. (n.d.). The city of Rome in late imperial ideology: The Tetrarchs, Maxentius, and Constantine*. PDF hosted at the Radboud Repository of the Radboud University Nijmegen. 

Hiesinger, Ulrich W. “The Portraits of Nero.” American Journal of Archaeology 79, no. 2 (1975): 113–24.

“History at Home: Laurel Wreath Activity - History Museum of Mobile.” Accessed May 2, 2022. 

Howgego, C. J. 1995. Ancient History from Coins. Approaching the Ancient World. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

“How to Read a Roman Coin, from the Malpas and Knutsford Hoards.” National Museums Liverpool. Accessed May 2, 2022.

“How to Read Roman Coins.” Ancient Coins and Collectibles, April 10, 2017.

Jacobson, David M. (2019)  “Coins of the First Century Roman Governors of Judaea and Their Motifs.” Electrum 26, (December): 73–96. 

Kazhdan, A. P. 1991. Alice-Mary Maffry Talbot, Anthony Cutler, Timothy E Gregory, and Ševčenko Nancy Patterson, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kiernan, P. (2016, June 8). Imperial Representation Under Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (A.D. 284-305). OhioLINK. Retrieved May 7, 2022, from 

Kleiner, Diana E. “Livia Drusilla and the Remarkable Power of Elite Women in Imperial Rome: A Commentary on Recent Books on Rome’s First Empress.” International Journal of the Classical Tradition 6, no. 4 (2000): 563–69.

Koester, Helmut. “Why Did Christianity Succeed? - the Great Appeal | from Jesus to Christ | Frontline.” PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, April 1998.

Kuosoulis, AA, Economopoulos K, Hatsinger M, Eshraghian A, Tsiodras S. The Fatal Disease of Emperor Galerius. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 215 (2012) pp 890-893.

Lendering, Jona. “Diadem: Roman Wreaths and Crowns.” Livius. 2004.

MacDonald, Brent. 2016. “Crowns: Understanding crowns in Roman Culture.” Not Just Another Book

Madden, Frederic W.  1877. Christian Emblems on the Coins of Constantine I. the Great, His Family, and His Successors. I. London: Virtue and Co, Limited, City Road.  doi:

Manders, Erika, and Slootjes Daniëlle, eds. 2020.  Leadership, Ideology and Crowds in the Roman Empire of the Fourth Century Ad. Habes, Heidelberger Althistorische Beiträge Und Epigraphische Studien, Band 62. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2020.

​​Meckler, Michael L. Roman Emperors - dir Maximinus Thrax. Ohio State University, August 26, 1997.

Metcalf, William E. 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. [Oxford Handbooks]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Meyendorff, John. “Justinian, the Empire and the Church.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968): 43–60.

Milani-Satarpia, Giovanni. 2017. “Ancient Roman History: Crowns Ancient Rome.” Maria Milani.

Milestone Rome. 2016. “The Forgotten Symbol of Municipal Rome.” Milestone Rome, April 4, 2016.

Morgan, Gwyn. 2007. 69 A.D.: The Year of Four Emperors. New York: Oxford University Press.

Morley, Craig. “Constantius II.” World History Encyclopedia. World History Encyclopedia, April 29, 2022.

Mulryan, John. “Satan’s Headache: The Perils and Pains of Giving Birth to a Bad Idea.” Milton Quarterly 39, no. 1 (2005): 16–22.

National Geographic Society. “Society: Rome’s Transition from Republic to Empire.” National Geographic. July 6, 2018.

Noreña, Carlos F. “The Communication of the Emperor’s Virtues.” The Journal of Roman Studies 91 (2001): 146–68.

Park, Yoo-Man. “Mark's Memory Resources and the Controversy Stories (Mark 2:1-3:6).” Google Books. Google. Accessed May 1, 2022.

Pohlsander, H. (n.d.). Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.). Roman Emperors - dir Crispus Caesar. Retrieved May 7, 2022, from 

Pollok, Alex. “Roman Propaganda in the Age of Augustus,” Dominican University of California. 2017.

Prickett, Katy. "Detectorist Finds 10,000 Roman Coins in Huntingdon Hoard." BBC News. Last modified December 19, 2021.

Rawson, Elizabeth. “Caesar’s Heritage: Hellenistic Kings and Their Roman Equals.” The Journal of Roman Studies 65 (1975): 148–59.

“Reading Ancient Roman Coin Inscriptions.” Reading Ancient Roman Coin Inscriptions - Littleton Coin Company. Littleton Coin Company, Inc., 1998.

Richman-Abdou, Kelly, Shovava, Today is Art Day, Comma, and Viviva Colorsheets. “This Armless Sculpture Is One of the Louvre's Most Treasured Masterpieces.” My Modern Met, September 8, 2020.

Roche, P. A. “The Public Image of Trajan’s Family.” Classical Philology, vol. 97, no. 1, 2002, pp. 41–60, Accessed 6 May 2022.

Roman. Coin Showing Emperor Constantine the Great Coin: Constantinus. n.d. Images, Diameter: 1.9 cm (3/4 in.). The Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Martin A. Ryerson; Chicago, Illinois, USA; 1922.4903;

“Roman Crowns and Wreath.” Tribunes and Triumphs. 2017.

Roman Empire - Antioch. Trebonianus Gallus and Volusianus. 8 Assaria. Ae.” n.d. Catawiki. Accessed May 5, 2022.

“Roman History: Geta.” UNRV.

Roman, Luke; Roman, Monica. Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology. Google Books. Retrieved May 7, 2022, from 

Roche, P. A. “The Public Image of Trajan’s Family.” Classical Philology, vol. 97, no. 1, 2002, pp. 41–60, Accessed 6 May 2022.

Rose, Charles Brian. “Forging Identity in the Roman Republic: Trojan Ancestry and Veristic Portraiture.” Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. Supplementary Volumes 7 (2008): 97–131.

Roskam Gert. 2021 “V. Mythology”  Volume 46: Greek Religion (Second Edition) ; Vol. 46. (March) pp. 64 - 78.

Rowan, Clare “Ambiguity, Iconology and Entangled Objects on Coinage of the Republican World.” The Journal of Roman Studies 106 (2016): 21–57.

Rubin, Z. "Pagan Propaganda During the Usurpation of Magnentius, 350 - 353." Scripta Classica Israelica. Yearbook of the Israel Society for the Promotion of Classical Studies, 17.1998 1998.

Scheidel, Walter. “Coin Quality, Coin Quantity, and Coin Value in Early China and the Roman World.” American Journal of Numismatics (1989-) 22 (2010): 93–118.

Scott and Company. “The Coin Collector's Journal” Vol. 8-9, No. 86 (January 1883).

Scott, Russell T. “PROVIDENTIA AUG.” Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte 31, no. 4 (1982): 436–59.

Serrano del Pozo, Joaquin. “The Constantinian Labarum and the Christianization of Roman Military Standards.” Journal for Late Antique Religion and Culture 15 (2021): 37–37.

​​“Sestertius - Augustus, Roman Empire.” Numista. Accessed May 2, 2022.

Sikes, E. E. “Nike and Athena Nike.” The Classical Review 9, no. 5 (1895): 280–83.

“Silver Denarius of Maximinus Thrax, Rome, AD 235 - AD 236 1957.172.591.” American Numismatic Society. Accessed May 3, 2022.

Smith, Doug. “Abbreviations on Roman Imperial Coins,” 1998.

Suarez, Rasiel. “The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins: Trajan.” FORVM ANCEINT COINS.

 Suetonius, and Alexander Thomson. 2008. The Lives of the Twelve Caesars: To Which Are Added, His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. Charleston: BiblioBazaar. 

Sutherland, C. H. V. 1974. Roman Coins. The World of Numismatics. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. 

Tacitus, Cornelius. 1881. The Annals. United Kingdom: G. Bell.

Tanner, Jeremy. "Portraits, Power, and Patronage in the Late Roman Republic*." The Journal of Roman Studies 90, (11, 2000): 18-50. doi:

Taylor, J. Edward. “The Coins of Aegina, Corinth, and Athens.” Essay. In Gods, Goddesses, and Flying Horses: A History of Roman Coins in Ancient Greece, 19–26, 2016. 

Tikkanen, Amy. “Licinius: Roman Emperor.” Encyclopedia Britannica. January 1, 2022.

“Theodosius I.” Christian History | Learn the History of Christianity & the Church. Christian History, August 8, 2008.

The British Museum. “How to Read Inscriptions on Roman Coins.” The Portable Antiquities Scheme. The Portable Antiquities Scheme/ British Museum, 2003. 

Thornton, Mary Elizabeth Kelly. 1971. “Nero’s New Deal.” Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 102: 621–29.

“The Roman Empire: In the First Century. The Roman Empire. Emperors. Nero.” PBS. Public Broadcasting Service. Accessed May 3, 2022. 

“THE ROMAN STANDARDS.” American Journal of Numismatics, and Bulletin of the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society 15, no. 1 (1880): 14–15.

Tompa, Peter. U.S. Laws That Impact the Trade in Ancient Coins, Prepared for the International Association of Professional Numismatists. N.p.: International Association of Professional Numismatists, 2022. 

Trell, Bluma L. “Architecture on Ancient Coins.” Archaeology, vol. 29, no. 1, 1976, pp. 6–13, Accessed 25 Apr. 2022.

Trentinella, Rosemarie. “Roman Portrait Sculpture: Republican Through Constantine.”, October 2003. 

Trentinella, Rosemarie. “Roman Portrait Sculpture: The Stylistic Cycle.”, October 2003.

Trebonian Gallus & Volusian 251-253 Co Emperors.” 2017. Coin Talk. 2017.

Tuck, Steven L. 2021.  A History of Roman Art. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.   

Volusian – 251-253 AD | Armstrong Economics.” 2012. Armstrong Economics | Research the Past to Predict the Future. April 3, 2012.

Von Der Osten, Dorothee Elm, and Dorothee Elm von den Osten. “THE CULT OF THE GODDESS ‘LIBERTAS’ IN ROME AND ITS REFLECTION IN OVID’S POETRY AND TIBULLAN LOVE ELEGY.” Vergilius (1959-) 52 (2006): 32–44.

Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew. “Image and Authority in the Coinage of Augustus.” The Journal of Roman Studies 76 (1986): 66–87.

Wasson, Donald L. “Alexander Severus.” World History Encyclopedia. World History Encyclopedia, May 2, 2022. 

West, Louis C. “Imperial Publicity on Coins of the Roman Emperors.” The Classical Journal 45, no. 1 (1949): 19–26.

Wrigley, Alfred. “The Elephant Denarius of Julius Caesar.” The elephant denarius of Julius Caesar, 01/10/15, coins at Warwick, October 1, 2015.

Wright, David H. “The True Face of Constantine the Great.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, vol. 41, 1987, pp. 493–507, Accessed 5 May 2022.